e-LOPA 104: Introduction & Workshop to Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA)

Day 1: 7 hours self-paced via TalentLMS
Day 2: 9AM-4PM with live trainer

PSRG is using hybrid learning for Introduction & Workshop to Layer of Protection Analysis via TalentLMS platform. You will go through modules that each followed by a 2-3 question quiz for reinforcement. The system requires that each module be completed and the interim quizzes be passed before moving on to the next module. Upon completing the modules there is a scheduled live question and answer session, workshops, and exercises with PSRG’s trainer. Those are followed by a graded quiz online and issue of a certificate once you pass the final quiz.

In this course, the participant will learn about Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) which is a semi-quantitative risk assessment method that lies between a qualitative Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) and a traditional Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This technique also helps in determining the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) necessary for a safety instrumented system to comply with instrument standards such as ISA S84 and IEC 61511. This course will cover the LOPA methodology in detail teaching of the fundamental rules of how to develop LOPA scenarios, estimate their consequences and severity, identify initiating events and frequency, and finally calculate risk and make decisions. In this course, the participants will learn about the Independent Layers of Protection (IPLs) and estimating their failure on demand. This course will use practical examples explaining the main concepts.  The development of a LOPA worksheet from a PHA worksheet will be covered in the Workshop for LOPA e-Training Course.

In this course, the participant will work on multiple Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) worksheets and apply Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) concepts presented in the Introduction to LOPA course.  Participants are encouraged to send their own PHA worksheets ahead of time so that a LOPA worksheet can be developed for an example that they are familiar with.  This course will be completely hands-on except a brief reminder of the LOPA methodology as the workshop progresses. 


  • Learn what LOPA is and it is not
  • Learn how to build successful LOPA Scenarios
  • Learn industry best practices for LOPA


  • Experienced PHA/HAZOP Leaders and PSM Coordinators and Managers
  • Operations, Safety and Project Managers; Process, Safety and Mechanical Engineers


  • Introductions and Course Objectives
  • LOPA Overview
    • What is Layer of Protection?
    • When is LOPA Used?
    • Uses and Limitations of LOPA
  • Development of LOPA Scenarios
    • Cause / Consequence Pair
    • Safeguards
    • Anatomy of a LOPA Scenario
  • Identification of Initiating Events
    • Understanding Initiating Events
    • Initiating Event Frequency Estimation
    • Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers
  • Identification of Independent Protection Layers (IPL)
    • Types of IPL
    • IPL Assessment
    • IPL Rules
  • Calculating the Risk
    • Unmitigated and Mitigated Risk
    • LOPA Recommendations
    • LOPA Worksheet Example
  • Potential LOPA Pitfalls
    • How to Identify and Avoid Poor (LOPA) Quality
    • Improving Plant Safety
    • ALARP and Other LOPA Issues
  • Summary
    • Review Course Objectives
    • e-Training Assessment Test


  • Introductions and Course Objectives
  • Review of LOPA
    • Anatomy of a LOPA Scenario
    • Rules for an Independent Protection Layer (IPL)
  • Workshop #1: LOPA Set-Up
    • Risk Matrix Review
    • LOPA Scenario Selection
    • Class Discussion
  • Review of Unmitigated Risk
    • Identification of Initiating Events
    • Enabling Conditions and Conditional Modifiers
  • Workshop #2: Calculating Unmitigated Risk
  • Review of Mitigated Risk
    • IPL Assessment
    • Probability of Failure on Demand of IPLs
  • Workshop #3: Calculating Mitigated Risk
    • Use of LOPA Worksheet
    • Calculation of Risk for Scenarios
    • Gap Analysis
  • Workshop #4: Calculating SIL
    • Using LOPA Sheet to compute SIL
  • Summary
    • Review Course Objectives
    • e-Training Assessment Test